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  • Fitria Ramadhanti, Ns.


A wound is an injury that results in damage to a body tissue, an example that often occurs is skin tissue. The shape and type of wound can vary, such as cuts, scratches, scars, punctures, and others.

Classification of wounds can also be grouped based on the duration of healing and the level of severity that affects wound healing and treatment. The following are the types of wounds:

1. Based on the cause: erosion, abrasion, excoriation

a. Erosion is a wound that only reaches the stratum corneum

b. Abrasion, which is a wound that only reaches the stratum spinosum

c. Excoriation, which is a wound that reaches the stratum basale.

  • These wounds are wounds with surface epithelial damage due to frictional trauma to the epidermis

  • Extensive abrasion wounds can result in loss of body fluids

  • If there is a wound, it must be washed immediately, foreign bodies in the wound must be cleaned carefully to minimize the risk of infection and prevent tattooing (wounds with a depth that reaches the stratum papilare dermis).

2. Contusion

  • These injuries are usually caused by blunt trauma or explosions.

  • This wound can cause extensive tissue damage.

  • May occur a large hematoma that is located under the skin or in the muscle and can persist.

  • Extensive contusions can result in infection and compartment syndrome.

3. Laceration

a. This type of injury can occur when there is a force of trauma that exceeds the tensile strength of the tissue, for example, such as a scalp tear due to blunt trauma to the head.

b. Lacerations are classified based on the mechanism of occurrence, namely:

1) Incision:

  • It is an incision wound caused by a sharp object.

  • Very minimal network damage.

  • Examples of incision wounds are: stab wounds, surgical wounds, wounds exposed to broken glass, and so on.

2) Tension laceration:

  • This type of injury is caused by blunt trauma, usually due to tangential forcewhich has a strength that exceeds the tensile strength of the tissue.

  • The result of this wound is a tear in the skin with irregular edges accompanied by contusions of the surrounding tissue.

  • Examples of these injuries are: injuries caused by impact with asphalt at high speed, skin lacerations caused by hitting a stick with high force, and so on.

3) Crush lacerations:

  • This type of laceration usually occurs because the skin experiences pressure between the object and the bone underneath.

  • This type of laceration wound is usually stellate in shape with moderate damage to the surrounding tissue.

  • High incidence of infection.

  • An example of this injury is a skin laceration above the eyebrow of a child after falling from a table.

The above are some examples of injuries that often occur in everyday life. There are types of wounds with various treatments according to the condition of the wound. However, in principle, wound care is one thing that cannot be done without wound care knowledge. Because if this happens, it is possible that the wound healing process will take longer due to improper treatment. Therefore, if you have a serious injury, usually the community has begun to be aware and chooses to use the services of a nurse who is certified and competent in treating wounds. At present, there are many parties that provide wound care services and this can be done easily, namely using homecare. This is of course a very good choice for the community because there is no need to come and wait long at the health service provider.


Bluestein, D., & Javaheri, A. (2008). Pressure Ulcers: Prevention, Evaluation, and Management, Am Fam Physician;78(10):1186-1194, 1195-1196.

Cooper, P., Russell, F., Stringfellow, S. (2014). A Review of Different Wound Types and Their Principles of Management in : Applied Wound Management Supplement, Wounds, 22 – 30.

Available at or

Dunn, D.L. (2009). Wound Closure Manual. Ethicon Inc, Johnson & Johnson Co, Philadelphia.

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